Silver Vademecum

Nano Silver Vademecum

 

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Nano silver

The smallest colloidal silver particles for safe and optimal results.

 What is Nano Silver?

Nano silver is a form of colloidal silver, where the smallest possible particles of silver are dissolved in water. This colloidal silver water kills pathogenic bacteria, viruses, fungi and yeasts to protect ourselves and our environment from unwanted intruders.

 

Nano silver:

  • Kills more than 650 different disease-causing bacteria, fungi, viruses, yeasts and parasites
  • Is the most versatile, natural antibiotic
  • Is a powerful inflammatory inhibitor for bacterial infections
  • Is versatile as a detox agent for intestines, blood, brains and organs
  • Helps break down the pathogenic bio film (dental plaque, excess mucus in the intestines)
  • Works as a “second immune system”, beneficial in influenza and cold, and also enhances the effect of other supplements
  • Activates the body’s own recovery process
  • Can convert damaged cells into stem cells (basic cells that form new tissue)
  • Works both internally and on the (damaged) skin and can be applied to open wounds
  • Contributes to good stools and weight loss in overweight
  • Is a natural preservative.

Indications for Use:

  • Acne
  • Mouth ulcers
  • Allergies
  • Allergic skin rash
  • Adrenal dysfunction
  • Bladder inflammation
  • Burns
  • Candida
  • Caries
  • Conservation of food
  • Conservation of flowers
  • Bowel complaints
  • Diarrhea
  • Ebola
  • Eczema
  • Flu
  • Shingles
  • Herpes
  • Skin complaints
  • HPV virus
  • Immunodeficiency
  • Throat pain
  • Cold sores
  • Throat, nose and ear complaints
  • Leaky gut
  • Scars
  • Respiratory tract disorders
  • Lyme
  • Stomach ulcer
  • Mouth odor
  • MRSA
  • Urticaria
  • Constipation
  • Ocular inflammation
  • Ear infection
  • Disinfection (open wounds, hands, toilet glasses, cutting board, telephone)
  • Pfeiffer
  • Psoriasis
  • Rhinitis
  • Rotavirus
  • Sars
  • Dental problems
  • Body odor
  • Chicken-pox
  • Warts
  • Colds
  • Reduced resistance
  • Sweaty feet (odors)

From the  1900’s onward,  colloidal silver has often been used to remedy a wide range of complaints, from skin irritation to meningitis. Doctors and pharmacists prescribed colloidal silver water for eye and ear infections, allergies, viral infections, conjunctivitis, inflammation of the throat, stomach ulcers, bowel inflammations, diarrhea and constipation, candida, blood poisoning, pancreatitis, burns, bronchitis, eczema, shingles, psoriasis, acne, ringworm, flu, colds, sore throats, bronchitis,   legionella, lymph node inflammations, malaria, multiple sclerosis, salmonella, fungal infections, spruce, Lyme disease, tuberculosis, gingivitis and depression. A miracle!

Many researchers from that time period showed that silver and mercury were very effective biocides. The work of Henry Crookes from 1910, showed that B. coli communis was killed by colloidal mercury in 2 minutes, and by colloidal silver in 6 minutes. The statement: “There is no known pathogen that is not killed in a laboratory with colloidal silver within 6 minutes” comes from that time period, following the many test results.

The Lancet published the work of Simpson and Hewlett in 1914, revealing that they could kill the bacterium Typhoid bacillus in 15 minutes with a colloidal silver solution of 500 ppm, but also in only two hours with only 5 ppm. This was a breakthrough, because 5ppm was completely safe for human use.

Silver thus gained unprecedented popularity.

Penicillin

In Europe and America, silver was so popular that no less than 94 different silver preparations were registered in a short time period as an official drug.

However, in 1938, this registration was withdrawn. In that same year, penicillin was introduced and patented. A patent can result in a lot of money for the pharmaceutical industry. The publications about silver were drastically reduced, and also the research on silver became much more difficult to find.

In 1941, the commercial production of penicillin, assisted by pressure from the war, was launched, creating a business which is still the most lucrative worldwide! In 1995, 13,550 Staphylococcus aureus infections occurred in hospitals in New York, which amounted to a cost of 435 million dollars – a “godsend” for the pharmaceutical industry.

Silver Gains Again Attention

From 1960/1970, a revival of colloidal silver occurred. In 1966, a very remarkable report from Brentano was published in the Surgical Forum, which showed that colloidal and ionic silver solutions, as well as combinations of those two, had very positive effects in the treatment of burns. Many remedies were tested, and it was found that silver was most effective, especially in treating the bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a bacterium  which is infamous for causing infections of burn wounds.

Researchers and medical professionals made new discoveries, reddiscoveries, wrote books and improved the production process of colloidal silver. In many laboratories, glass petri dishes for bacteria were sterilized by inserting a silver plate. Since then, silver has also been used in water treatment plants and in water tanks in aviation and aerospace. NASA came to the same conclusion: Nano silver is safe and highly effective as a biocide. Since then, they use it to purify their drinking water. For decade, the Swiss company Katadyn has specialized in water purification and water storage for the food industry, as well as for private use at, for example, hotels in the tropics. This started a lively market for home, garden and kitchen appliances to make home-made colloidal silver. Even though there were some benefits from this, the quality of the home-made colloidal silver was inferior and not suitable for long internal use. There were again cases of argyria found in people who for years would drink a gallon of homemade silver per day. Argyria is a gray / blue stain of the skin, caused by large silver particles and silver salts sticking to the skin tissue en turning it blue.  Fortunately this does not occur with high quality silver products.

From around 1995, silver is also used in the textile and footwear industry as a bacterial-killing and odor-fighting agent.   In 2005, silver was  included as a fiber in underwear by the English Army in Iraq to prevent bacterial infections.

Since 1954, colloidal silver has been used to sterilize pools, prevent algae growth and to purify drinking water.

Silver in the 21st Century

After 1938, the medical application of silver has been largely suppressed by the regular antibiotics – a worldwide industry which is yielding so much profit that it defeats every other industry in profit margins. Nevertheless is silver water increasingly used as an alternative to antibiotics. It is even added to existing antibiotics, thereby increasing their effectiveness  a thousand times! Already at the beginning of the 1900s has silver been tested positively in killing more than 650 different pathogens, and recently also Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, SARS and Ebola.

Due to the growing immunity of bacteria to pharmaceutical antibiotics, more and more researchers are looking for a viable alternative to infectious diseases, and silver appears to be the ideal candidate.

Suggested Uuse:

Nano silver is available in pre-diluted form, and can be taken straight from the bottle, preferably on an empty stomach. Hold the silver 1 minute in the mouth before swallowing. This promotes direct uptake from the oral mucosa into the bloodstream. Nano silver can also be applied directly to the skin, mucous membranes, open wound, lime nail or ear or eye.

When Buying Silver Please Note:

  • Particle size must be around 1 nm (nano meter)
  • PPM must be between 10 and 20 nm
  • Zeta potential must be at least 40 mv
  • Packaging material should be dark violet glass
  • Odor, color and taste must be almost odorless, colorless and tasteless
  • Shape of the particles, if known. Preferably round / circular.

Note: If you use silver for the first time it is advisable to build it up slowly because of possible detoxification reactions such as red or itchy skin or headaches. This is known as the Herxheimer reaction. In case of repeated use one can usually take the maximum dosage.

Herxheimer Reaction

Due to the biocidal and antiseptic effects of silver, the body suddenly receives more waste than normal, which can cause detoxification symptoms, also known as the Herxheimer reaction. These can include headache, nausea, sweating, itchy skin or light rash and intestinal disturbances. This can easily be avoided by slowly increasing the dosage or can be stopped by reducing the dosage or temporarily stopping the intake. Also, supplements such as psyllium fiber, and chlorella or wheatgrass help to absorb and excrete the released waste (dead pathogens). Selenium and NAC provide for proper excretion of the silver after it has done its work.

Nano Silver Can Be Used Short and Long Term

Short-term with temporary skin or eye infections or, for example with cranberry juice, with a bladder infection, or with zinc or echinacea for colds and flu.

In case of chronic or recurring symptoms, we recommend using at least four weeks of silver to give the immune system a “boost” and rid the blood and organs of excess waste.

Silver is also the ideal base for the cleaning of the intestine together with, for example, psyllium husks and chlorella, followed by, inter alia, L-lutamine, zinc, probiotics and for the recovery of the intestines.

How Do I Take It?

Based on silver products with the above characteristics:

Dosage externally:

In a spray bottle: 1 to 3 times daily 1 to 3  sprays on the affected area

In pipette bottle: 1 to 3 times daily 1 to 2 drops with pipette

As a compress: cotton wool, gauze or cotton swab soaked with silver and apply to affected area.

Internal use

Adults:

5 ml / 1 teaspoon to 30 ml / 3 tablespoons a day. Up to 90 ml / 9 tablespoons a day.

Build it up slowly if using for the first time. Depending on the different individual complaints and constitution, start with 5 or 10 ml and build in increments of 5 or 10 ml per day to 30 or 60 ml.

The average effective dose is 30 ml per day, although this can differ on an individual basis, such as 60 or sometimes also 20 ml per day. When detoxification reactions occur during the use of silver, reduce the dosage and raise again until the desired effect is noted. In the absence of the desired effect, increasing the dosage to 90 ml per day. We recommend using this dosage up to 14 consecutive days. Any increase in the indicated 30 ml dose may be desired with, for example, acute inflammation, prolonged constipation, severe flu or fever.

Maintenance: 5 ml / 1 tsp per day.

For gum disease: 2 to 3 times a day one tablespoon immediately after a meal, rinse and swallow or a few sprays.

Babies and children:

0 to 2 years:  single drops to 5 ml / 1 teaspoon per day. Up to 1 tablespoon per day

2 to 6 years: 5 ml / 1 teaspoon to 10 ml / 1 tablespoon a day. Up to 2 tablespoons a day

6 to 12 years old:  10 ml / 1 tablespoon to 20 ml / 2 tablespoons a day. Up to 3 tablespoons a day

Pregnancy and Lactation:

Up to 10 ml per day to prevent detoxification symptoms.

With thrush or nipple cleaving: 3 sprays 3 times a day.

Also For Animals, Silver Water is Very Useful.

In case of infections, wounds, bladder inflammation, abscesses, kennel cough, sneezing disease, parasite prevention, scabies and other skin conditions.

Dosage for animals:

2 x daily, depending on condition: 0.5 – 1 teaspoon per 10 kilograms of body weight in the throat of the animal or mix with food or drinking water.

Details: Nano silver works fast. For example, eye inflammation, skin irritation or painful gums or throat pain can often be rectified within a day, sometimes within 10 minutes. However, detoxification symptoms can also occur quickly. Although this is rare, it is good to be aware of symptoms such as headache, nausea, diarrhea, irritated skin and excessive sweating. Always build the dosage calmly, especially when one has a weak health or is very sensitive.

With chronic complaints,when a full liter of silver is taken as detoxification and boost for the immune system, there are almost always symptoms of a disturbed intestinal flora. We therefore recommend to use a probiotic after a silver detox to recover the intestinal flora, preferrably in combination with L-glutamine, zinc, multimineral supplement and good fatty acids.

Nano silver is generally transparent, odorless and tasteless. Occasionally, subtle color, odor and taste changes may occur.

Storage: kept in dark violet glass, the silver is protected from oxidation. The bottles don’t need to be refrigerated. Once opened, and depending on the ways the silver is used or stored,  the silver keeps for 6 to 12 months. In case of large color, taste or odor changes, the product is oxidized. We therefore advise not to use it internally. However, it can still be used as a disinfectant for sinks, door handles, telephone, refrigerator, bin, etc.

Interactions:

No interactions with with other nutrients or medications  are known.

For many decades, silver has been used together with other supplements and / or medication without negative side effects. Note: silver salts may exhibit side effects. See “Safe Silver Use”.

It is known that Selenium, NAC and vitamin E contribute to the removal and elimination of (excess) silver.

Why Nano Silver?

Nano silver is most effective and completely safe.

Silver comes in different shapes. Silver is mostly used in jewelry and silverware. For medicinal applications, silver salts, silver protein, elemental or metallic silver and ionic silver are used. Silver salts and silver proteins were primarily used in the early 1900s, but are now seen as inferior products. They are large, prone to oxidation and much less powerful in their biocidal activity. They can also cause argyria (gray / blue discoloration of the skin). All forms of silver give off ions. Ions are highly reactive and act as potent biocides and antiseptics because they are very toxic to pathogens. However, ionic silver is not stable.

Nano silver is the latest version. This is silver metal in extremely small particles, usually around 1 nanometer, surrounded by a powerful electromagnetic field. The electromagnetic charge at the interface of the silver particle and the medium in which it “floats”, is called zeta potential. High zeta potential guarantees a stable, safe and highly effective silver product with a long shelf life.  It has also been shown that circular metallic silver particles below 10 nm possess the most potent biocidal properties, without affecting healthy cells.It is therefore recommended to ask your supplier for this Nano silver.

PPM, Particle Size and Color

PPM stands for Parts Per Million, and is an accepted standard, just like milligrams per liter. Many people think: “The more PPM the better”. This is not true. The effectiveness of silver depends primarily on the shape and the particle size.

For example, when you put 10 coffee beans in a glass of hot water you don’t have any coffee. When you smash the same beans in pieces, you only get weak coffee. Only when you grind the beans into powder and then pour water over the ground coffee, you would  have good quality coffee. The smaller the coffee particles, the better the result.

This is also true with silver and other nano minerals. The smaller the particles, the easier they can “solve” in liquids and be transported everywhere to do their work. Besides, by making the particles much smaller, you get more yield from the same amount of silver and thus more benefit.

Good quality colloidal silver must always be clear. Particles below 20 nm can not reflect color according to the Thyndall effect. When your silver water is yellow or blue, the particles are many times larger and thus many times less effective and maybe even poisonous. Also, silver yellows through oxidation. This would not be desirable for internal use.

How Does Nano Silver Work?

Silver kills viruses, bacteria, fungi and yeast and activates cell renewal. Silver enters the cell and deactivates replication.

Nano silver particles can adhere to the surface membrane of infectious bacteria and other pathogens, blocking their oxygen supply and causing them to die. They can also, when small and strongly charged, penetrate a bacterium or virus, break down important proteins such as glycoproteins, RNA and DNA, which causes reproduction to stop and kill the virus or bacteria. Also yeast and fungi are rendered harmless with silver [4,5,9,15,18].

Stem Cells

Several studies confirm what Dr. Becker said in the 1970s: “Silver induces de-differentiation of cells, allowing them to form into stem cells. Stem cells can take any form, allowing them to promote cures.” [15,17]. This makes silver not only effective as biocidal and antiseptic, but it also activates actual healing.

Cancer cells

Various studies show that nano silver particles inhibit certain types of cancer cells in their growth, and stimulate apoptosis (cancer cell suicide) without affecting healthy cells. Also Dr.Becker and many others, such as Dr. Nordstrom of the Karolinska Institute in Sweden, has already for decades described the beneficial effect of silver against cancer. Possible explanations for this were the strengthening of the immune system and the influence on stem cells. How exactly it works, is however still unclear. According to oncologist and scientist Dr. Gary Smith cancer cells wihtout silver cannot de-differentiate, making them grow further [11,12,15].

E. Coli and S. Aureus

Several studies have shown that silver ions render the bacteria of gram-negative Escherichia Coli and gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA) harmless, by loosening the cytoplasm from the membrane and inactivate the protein in the cell. Through this process the targeted DNA loses its ability to replicate. Different temperatures and PH values ​​did not make any difference [4,9,18].

Ebola, HIV-1 and Other Viruses

American research, which interestingly was denied at the time of the Ebola outbreak, pointed out that silver nano particles were able to neutralize hemorrhagic (bleeding) fever viruses, including Ebola, by stopping gene expression and reproduction of the virus . For the silver treatment to be effective, it was important that the silver was either preventively deployed or taken within a few hours after infection.

The researchers also discovered that an enzymatic protein called Cathepsin plays an essential role in the replication of the Ebola virus. Silver nano particles undermine the activity of cathepsin, thereby limiting viral replication in the cell and subsequent spread of the virus.

Interestingly, it was found that concentrations of only 10 ppm seemed to work better than concentrations of 25 or 50 ppm. In addition, the smallest silver particles proved a lot more effective than the larger silver particles. This again confirms that the particle size is far more important than the PPM (mg / liter) [13,18].

In a two-year trial on subjects with chronic recurrent respiratory and sinus complaints, mostly caused by viruses, respiratory tract infections and sinusitis disappeared within 1 to 2 weeks after taking 1 to 6 tablets of nano silver per day. Unexpected observations were reported of increased mental alertness, increased energy and improved near and far vision. [8]

Yeasts and Fungi

Silver inhibits Candida and other yeast and fungi as well as biofilm. A number of studies showed that silver was absorbed by spores of fungi after which, within a minute, the germination of these fungi was completely inhibited [16,18,19].

“Zombies-Effect”

Very interesting is also the “zombies effect”. In 2015, Scientific Reports published an article stating that bacteria killed by silver, before they were cleared by the immune system, could kill other pathogenic bacteria! The silver caused the dead pathogenic bacteria to become a biocidal agent for their peers. Silver is not only a biocidal and antiseptic product that can do its work repeatedly until it is secreted, but also enlarges its own army [14].

Circular nano clusters most effective

In 2005,  J.R. Morones  and J.L. Elechiguerra observed that only metallic silver colloids less than 10 nm were able to adhere and then invade the gram-negative bacteria inoculated on agar plates (grafted in soil). They reported that these silver nano clusters were circular. The overall effect of the metallic silver nano particles was different from the effect of silver ions, which mainly occurred on the surface of the membrane and caused a protective mechanism in the bacteria. The metallic silver nano clusters did not cause this protective mechanism and could penetrate into the bacteria and then disrupt functions such as permeability, replication and respiration [8].

Historical and Contemporary Use of Silver

Since ancient times, silver coins, cutlery and scales have been used as natural antibiotic agents and preservatives for food and beverages. Both the ancient Greeks and Romans as well as the ancient Chinese cooked silver and gold coins with their nutrition to promote health. The first cowboys, vaqueros, in Spain and Mexico , when away from home to herd cattle, used silver coins to preserve milk and other foods. They also placed the silver on their injuries to protect themselves from bacterial infections. The nobility used silver crockery to keep illness away. There was one disadvantage: the relatively large silver particles they received from porous crockery would lodge into their tissue, which then would result in a bluish gray discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, called argyria. Although argyria is not toxic, it is aesthetically a nuisance and gave the nobility the term “blue blood”.

Quality Improvement

In the late 19th century, colloidal silver was discovered – a form of silver in which super small particles “floated” in water through their electromagnetic field.

Until that time, silver was mechanically milled into small particles and added to water. To keep the product stably in suspension, silver salts, proteins, or a dispersing agent were added. This meant that silver products from that time were less effective and safe than the current versions. Nevertheless, great health-promoting results were already achieved.

In 1893, Carl von Nägeli discovered the “oligodynamic effect” – the phenomenon where metals such as silver, copper and tin, in very small dosages, possess potent biocidal properties when extremely small. Nägeli found that oligodynamic silver (nano particles) was already active at less than 5ppm (5 milligrams per liter). One therefore needed much less of these nano particles to achieve the same effect, which virtually eliminated the chance of any side effects. Nägeli’s research led to improvement of technology, using nan oparticles for many antiseptic and medicinal applications. However, it still took several years until completely safe and very powerful silver products came on the market without any side effects. Fortunately, thanks to the dedication of passionate manufacturers, we can now fully enjoy the positive effects of silver!

Silver Also Good For Bone Fractures and Tissue Repair

In addition to its biocidal properties, silver also has a restorative ability on tissues such as skin, gum and bone. Experimental) research showed accelerated bone growth after fractures. This property also appeared to apply to other body tissues. Silver also accelerates the recovery of skin cells in wounds and skin infections. That’s why silver is widely used in the treatment of burns. It also reduces scar tissue. Shampoos, patches, creams and sportswear are enriched with silver for antibacterial action and faster skin repair.

Silver As a Weapon Against Viruses

American researchers, looking for an effective remedy against Ebola and related viruses, found that nano silver is effective against all viruses causing haemorrhagic fever (fever with bleeding). They also discovered that nano silver was especially effective when it was taken preventively or in the first hours after infection.

Silver As a Diagnostic and Preventative Infection Agent

Silver is nowadays also used to color cells so a diagnosis can be made, for example, neuropathic pain conditions. In medical devices like pacemakers and artificial hips, silver is used to prevent bacterial sources in the body.

Important References on Colloidal Silver:

Dr. Paul Farber wrote a book about colloidal silver in the last century, after he had healed himself from Lyme disease and an additional fungal infection (Candida) using colloidal silver. In his book Micro Silver Bullet,  Dr. Farber writes the following: “Research has shown that colloidal silver has been successfully used in many diseases caused by 650 different pathogens, including acne, rosacea, all kinds of allergies, foot fungus, parasites in the blood, corneal inflammation, Lyme disease, malaria, meningitis, pneumonia, psoriasis, shingles, all kinds of viruses, warts, cough, HPV virus, AIDS and the MRSA bacterium.” **

The book of Dr. Josef Pies, Colloidal Silver-A Natural Antibiotic explains how colloidal silver supports our immune system. “In the US, colloidal silver has had a comeback and also in Europe the interest for this effective grows agent in the treatment of infectious diseases.”  However, silver can be used to support of the immune system, as a detox or powerful anti-inflammatory agent with eye infections or painful gums – short and long term.

Note: Current legislation does not allow for many supplements to state on the packaging how they can be used. Sometimes, as with silver water, the mention of internal use isn’t even allowed. This regulation is supposed to ensure consumer safety. Although it is correct that there are restrictions on the marketing for products that aren’t properly substantiated through scientific research, these restrictions are confusing for the consumer in regards to many good products. Additionally, the consumer is limited in his search for alternative means for pharmaceuticals that often help only partially and involve many side effects. The reason for this is that the Codex Alimentarius, an umbrella government agency, has determined that alternative health supplements had to be re-examined. However, the excessive costs involved for the small, independent manufacturers of such products have resulted in the disappearance of many  supplements which have been proven beneficial. As in many other areas, here too, legislation leaves much to be desired and  has failed to address the interests of the people. Fortunately, there are objective sources of information such as this website, published with a passion for alternative healthcare.

Sources:

  1. http://www.silver-colloids.com/Book/SilverColloids-s.pdf
  2. Ions, Atoms and Charged Particles, by Francis S. Key and George Maass, Ph.D.
  3. An In-depth History of Silver, Medical Uses of Colloidal Silver Through The Ages, Eric J Rentz, Do, MSc.
  4. Antibacterial Activity of Silver Nano Particles Against Staphylococcus Aureus and Escherichia Coli, Korean J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Vol. 39, No. 1, 77-85 (2011)
  5. Viral Pathogens and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome: Oligodynamic Ag +   for Direct Immune Intervention, Renz,
  6. Silver Enhances Antibiotic Activity Against Gram-negative BacteriaJ. Reuben Morone-Ramirez , # 1.4   Jonathan A. Winkler , # 1.2   Catherine S. Spina , 3.4   and   James J. Collins 1,2,3,4, *, Sep 2012
  7. A Pharmacological and Toxicological Profile of Silver as an Antimicrobial Agent in Medical Devices, Alan BG Lansdown
  8. Clinical Applications of Gold and Silver Nano Colloids, Guy E Abraham, MD
  9. Feng OL, Wu J,   et al.   A mechanistic study of the antibacterial effect of silver ions on Escherichia Coli and Staphylococcus Aureus.   J Biomed Mater Res, 2000; 52: 662-668.
  10. https://www.mddionline.com/role-antimicrobial-silver-nanotechnology
  11. Anti-Tumor Activity of Silver Nano Particles in Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites Tumor Model, Department of Biotechnology, Division of Molecular and Cellular Biology, at   Kalasalingam  University in India, 2010
  12. Antitumor Activity of Colloidal Silver on MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells, J.Excp, Clinical Cancer Res, Nov. 16, 2010
  13. Fever Viruses Novel Nano Technology-Based Antiviral Agents, Janice Speshock, Ph.D. Saber Hussain, Ph.D. Applied Biotechnology Branch 711th Human Performance Wing Air Force Research Laboratory
  14. Antibacterial Activity of Silver-killed Bacteria: the Zombies Effect, Racheli am Knaz, Wakslak, Rami Pedahzur & David AVNIR, scientific reports, April 23, 2015
  15. Publication: Colloidal Silver, a Marvelous Way, Marvin Lee Robey
  16. Fungicides, Toxic Action of Metal Ions to Fungus SporesLP Miller , SEA McCallan J. Agric. Food Chem, 1957
  17. Induced De-differentiation: A Possible Alternative to Embryonic Stem Cell TransplantsNeurorehabilitation. 2002; 17 (1): 23-31.
  18. Advisory Nano Silver, commissioned by Environment Association, Anne Dullemeijer, Leon Munting Guus Reyngoud and Lisa Spronck, 2011
  19. http://thesilveredge.com/study-antifungal-effect-against-adhered-cells-and-biofilms-of-candida-albicans-and-candida-glabrata.shtml#.WcKqiPNJbIU
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